APPLYING THE INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION MODEL WITH ADULT LEARNERS
A later draft of this chapter appears in C. R. Dills & A. J. Romiszowski (Eds.), Instructional development paradigms. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1997
Syracuse, New York
As Brockett described in his chapter earlier in this book, the humanism paradigm provides another framework for approaching the design and delivery of instruction. In keeping with the basic tenants of humanism, a better way of describing such instructional design (ID) or delivery efforts is to say that they involve facilitating learners to take increasing responsibility for their own learning. Maslow (1976) and Rogers (1977) alluded to this as involving the total person in learning.
Humanism generally refers to beliefs about freedom, autonomy, and that "human beings are capable of making significant personal choices within the constraints imposed by heredity, personal history, and environment" (Elias & Merriam, 1980, p. 118). Humanist principles stress the value of specific and individual human needs. Some primary humanist assumptions include the following: (a) human nature is inherently good; (b) individuals are free, autonomous, and capable of making major personal choices; (c) human potential for growth and development is virtually unlimited; (d) self-concept plays an important role in growth and development; (e) individuals have an urge toward self-actualization; (f) reality is defined by each person; and (g) individuals have responsibility to both themselves and others (Elias & Merriam, 1980).
The humanism paradigm is receiving increasing attention from some instructional designers who are attempting to make their instructional systems more "responsive to the needs of the individual student" (Miller & Hotes, 1982, p. 22). Humanism, what Hollis (1991) describes as a "theory of learning," supports some approaches to help improve instructional effectiveness. Many mediated approaches to learning, for example, are based on assumptions that learners can and will assume responsibility for making learning decisions.
Kramlinger and Huberty (1990) also pay attention to the wisdom and experience participants can contribute to instructional activities and suggest this involves learners becoming more reflective on personal experiences and more self-directed in their acquisition of new knowledge or skill. Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) created what they call the PRO (Personal Responsibility Orientation) model to provide a definitional framework for self-directed involvement and to describe corresponding interactions between learners, instructors, and the societal conditions within which learning occurs.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a teaching and learning process based on humanism, what Sisco in his earlier chapter refers to as "Individualizing the Instructional" process (II), can be implemented at the tactical or lesson level with adult learners. The II model is a teaching and learning process premised not only on humanism, but also on ideas about the empowerment of learners. Much of the model's development was supported by various research efforts to define and describe self-directed learning (SDL). Most SDL research in the past three decades has demonstrated that adult learners generally prefer to take considerable responsibility for their own learning. Thus, there is considerable value in considering the humanism paradigm as a foundation for instructional design.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEARNER CONTROL
Many traditional teaching, training, or ID situations limit opportunities for personal learner involvement and decision-making because control over content or process remains in the hands of experts, designers, or teachers who depend primarily on didactic, behaviorist, or cognitivist approaches (Kramlinger & Huberty, 1990). In essence, some teachers have difficulty accepting the humanistic philosophical underpinnings crucial to adults accepting increased responsibility for learning. They may even accept certain humanistic beliefs but feel compelled to employ a more directed instructional approach because of organizational or traditional expectations about teaching and the design of instruction.
As Hollis (1991) notes:
. . . traditionally, instructional technologists have largely ignored the humanists' ideas among all the available theories from which to draw upon and incorporate into their schemes. Theoretically, instructional technology has been based on research in human learning and communications theories. In reality, more borrowing of ideas is needed, especially from the ranks of the humanists. (p. 51)
The II process assumes there are various aspects of teaching, learning, or ID over which learners can assume some control (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990; Patterson, 1973; Valett, 1977). For example, many learners can determine some of their personal learning needs by using a variety of assessment or diagnostic instruments. Often a learner is capable of controlling or making decisions through a learning contract or some other planning tool about the sequence of certain learning materials (Knowles, 1986). Many learners are very capable of deciding the pace or approach in acquiring new knowledge (Hiemstra, 1994).
Other aspects of the learning process over which learners can assume some responsibility include such functions as setting goals, specifying the learning content, choosing instructional methods, controlling elements of the learning environment, promoting the nature of any introspection or critical thinking, and selecting evaluation techniques. Many of these aspects will be detailed in the next section.
INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION: THE PROCESS IN ACTION
As an adult basic education instructor, Sarah Roberts was familiar with the need to build self-confidence in her learners. She recalled how many came to the learning center with low self-esteem, but a sincere desire to improve themselves. The learners were not always realistic about their personal goals nor the time needed to accomplish them, so Sarah strived to set a tone of encouragement tempered with realistic expectations. She believed that small, incremental gains coupled with lots of positive feedback, lead to later success.
Sarah's views about the educational process were consistent with most other teachers at the learning center where she worked. She and her colleagues believed that the best way to instruct adults was through an individualizing process. This meant that each and every learner was helped to assume increasing responsibility for their learning. Although many of the learners initially required a good deal of structure, the idea of individual control and accountability was constantly reinforced. As a result, most flowered under such conditions and Sarah felt the reason for this was related to the instructional process practiced at the center. (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990, pp. 77-78)
Although Sarah Roberts is fictitious person, her story is not unrealistic. The individualizing process described in this vignette consists of six steps: (a) Carrying out various activities prior to the first session, such as developing a learning rationale, preplanning certain learning experiences, and securing a variety of potential learning resources; (b) facilitating or creating a positive learning environment, including attention to physical, psychological, and social aspects; (c) developing the instructional plan, including active involvement of participants in assessing personal and relevant group needs, ascertaining the relevance of past experience, and prioritizing knowledge areas to be covered; (d) helping learners identify appropriate learning activities and techniques; (e) facilitating various learning experiences and monitoring learner progress; and (f) evaluating individual learning outcomes in various ways. Building on aspects of the humanism paradigm, in the II process the instructor's role is to manage and facilitate a learning process: "optimum learning is the result of careful interactive planning between the instructor and the individual learners" (Hiemstra & Sisco, 1990, pp. 47-48).
There are several specific roles an instructor or facilitator undertakes in the II process:
1. Serving as a content resource or specialist on some topics.
2. Managing an interactive process involving learners in determining their own learning needs, rather than pre-supposing a generic set of needs.
3. Arranging and employing the resources necessary for a group of learners to accomplish their personal goals, including such actions as finding or creating new resources, obtaining knowledge or expertise on new areas, and arranging for the availability of outside experts.
4. Making available a wide variety of instructional experiences to maintain learner interest.
5. Using various instructional techniques for stimulating and motivating learners (Wlodkowski, 1985, presents several strategies for motivating adult learners).
6. Helping learners develop positive attitudes and feelings about their self-directed learning abilities.
7. Maintaining some understanding of how well each learner is doing at reflecting on personal learnings.
8. Facilitating learners in evaluating their personal achievements in various ways, such as traditional testing, instructor or collegial critiques of written materials, personal interviews between the facilitator and a learner, and self-evaluation.
Most of these roles are based on the humanist assumptions described earlier in the chapter and the notion that learners can and will assume increasing responsibility for their own learning. The following sections describe how various steps in the II process make use of these roles.
Activities Prior to Meeting Learners the First Time
As with most educational endeavors, in the II process an instructor's activities do not begin at the time of any initial contact with learners. An organizational structure for participatory planning is required, various learning materials must be prepared, and considerable thinking about how to involve learners must take place. In other words, an instructor should carry out considerable planning and preparation.
However, there are some differences an instructor must consider in comparison to what normally takes place in many of the more traditional teaching and learning approaches or those based on other than the humanist paradigm. In many respects, more advanced planning is required in an individualized setting than in more structured ones, because needs are specified during initial interactions between instructor and learners and often they are refined throughout the process. Thus, advance preparation for potential learning activities in a variety of possible areas may be required. The following describes some of the many actions typically taking place prior to that first contact with learners.
II is differentiated from many other instructional processes in that no course, training session, or workshop can be completely developed for prior to meeting with the learners. Each group of learners will be different, new or unexpected needs frequently emerge during the needs assessment efforts, and new learning resources and experiences will constantly be required.
Early in any pre-planning efforts there is a need to determine or understand necessary competencies or requirements. For example, most instructors or trainers must wear an institutional hat of some sort and be responsible for ensuring that subsequent learning experiences are within normal individual or organizational expectations. There may be governmental or other regulations which mandate certain learning requirements. In addition, most participants will anticipate acquiring certain types of knowledge or skill.
Thus, if a training program or course has already been presented at least one time, then defining competencies may mean simply refining those identified in earlier planning work. However, when a new learning experience is being developed, then the process of determining competencies may involve considerable background research, conferring with colleagues, anticipating learners' expected proficiencies, estimating the amount or type of learning activities needed, and thinking about how various learning experiences can be blended together. Whatever efforts are utilized, clearly understanding necessary learning requirements provides a background for acquiring various learning resources and estimating needed learning experiences.
Securing Learning Resources
As noted earlier, in the II process an instructor assumes a variety of roles, including such functions as facilitating the learning process, supporting self-directed learning, and providing a variety of resources, as well as the more traditional presentation of information on several topics. Thus, providing learners access to various learning materials or resources is required.
This involves finding, building, designing, and developing a variety of resource possibilities, such as a large collection of films, video tapes, and even learning experiences out in the community or within the larger organization sponsoring the training activity. In other words, a facilitator needs to provide information and resource possibilities related to many aspects of any learning endeavor. Therefore, advance planning helps to ensure that certain materials and specialized resource people are available to learners.
Workbook of Supplemental Materials
It is important, too, to create a workbook or study guide of supplemental materials that describe, support, and enrich the learning experience. This includes such features as syllabus information, explanation of any learning requirements, learning activity descriptions, bibliographic references, learning contract materials including examples (described later in this chapter), and any special materials not easily obtainable.
The advantage of developing a supplemental study guide is that it typically emerges from any advance planning and collection of resource material. It is never possible to plan everything because of unexpected directions determined through needs assessment activities. However, a well designed workbook is appreciated by learners and it provides a foundation on which subsequent and evolving learning can be based.
Creating A Positive Learning Environment
In the II process there are several activities that are important to establishing an effective learning climate. As noted before, they grow out of the humanist paradigm that stresses the value of individual decision- making. The purpose of this section is to describe these activities and what usually happens during the first few hours of student/teacher contact.
Initial Contact with Learners
Actual content delivery begins literally within the first session's initial minutes in many teaching and learning approaches (Pratt, 1984; Sisco, 1991). This assumes each learner there is ready to receive information from the trainer or teacher. Subsequently, what often happens is that information about a topic is delivered in a lecture format. Learners may even be discouraged from seeking clarification of learning goals, content being covered, or future expectations of the instructor.
The II process, however, assumes that typical adult students have considerable life and work experiences that can become the basis for future learning. Most adults are capable and usually desirous of assuming some personal control over the learning process. It is in the first few hours together that attitudes about what is possible are formed.
Thus, it is important that the first time learners are together the instructor helps them to become acquainted with each other. This serves to elaborate on the varied nature of experiences among participants and serves as a means for building potential collegial relationships. When possible to do so place the learners in a circle or "U"-shape so good eye contact with each other is possible. This is known as a sociopetal setting (chairs in rows is known as a sociofugal arrangement and it normally discourages interactions or makes them more difficult--Hiemstra, 1991a; Vosko, 1991).
Various techniques can be used to help people become acquainted, such as the use of name tags or large index cards folded to look like a tent with the learner's name (using a first name or nickname is recommended) printed on the outside in large enough letters so they can be easily seen from across the room or table. Other techniques include having people introduce themselves one by one around the circle or dividing the class into groups of two so that members of pairs can become acquainted with each other; subsequently, each member of the pair introduces their new friend to the rest of the group. Sisco (1991) describes several other techniques that can be used.
Some instructors not accustomed to the II process may have reservations about using this initial time for helping learners become acquainted rather than for informational presentations. However, a small investment of time at the beginning of a course or training session can reap extra rewards later on in terms of learner enthusiasm, respect for each other, and ideas regarding whom to work with on any learning projects. In essence, a humanistic respect for others underlies this feature.
Arranging For and Monitoring the Physical Space
An appropriate physical space is important to successful teaching and learning. This may entail insisting on certain rooms or spaces for your course or training session prior to when it starts or finding another setting if the original space becomes inadequate or inappropriate (Hiemstra, 1991a). Occasionally it may even be necessary to request additional breakout rooms to accommodate small group discussion or work sessions.
Many adults also thrive in settings that are informal in nature and where collegial networking is encouraged. In those learning situations where small group discussion is utilized, move the chairs into the sociopetal or circular pattern noted earlier. If the chairs are not comfortable, encourage learners to take charge of their own comfort by bringing in their own chairs or cushions. Obviously, there are many other aspects of the physical environment that need managing or assessing, including such things as table size, disabled accessibility, and appropriate voice amplification.
Ensuring that the learning space is comfortable, accessible, or usable will take time and energy both before a learning experience begins and throughout the time it is underway. It frequently necessitates a facilitator arriving at a room early to monitor the conditions, bringing in extra chairs or tables, and spending countless hours rearranging the furniture or making coffee. It may mean monitoring the temperature, worrying about the level of lighting in a space, and ensuring that adequate time for refreshments or other breaks is available. However, such attention to the physical side of a learning environment usually helps build positive learning attitudes among learners.
Dealing with Psychological/Emotional Conditions
An effective learning environment involves more than just attention to various physical features:
A learning environment is all of the physical surroundings, psychological or emotional conditions, and social or cultural influences affecting the growth and development of an adult engaged in an educational enterprise. (Hiemstra, 1991a, p. 8)
For example, there are various psychological or emotional conditions that may impact on learners in a multitude of ways. Pratt (1984) and Sisco (1991) talk about this as the need to deal with those feelings, thoughts, and questions learners may have about a new learning experience. Mahoney (1991) suggests that many adults carry "baggage" or outside influences into the learning setting that can adversely affect their ability for successful participation. Brown, Hastings, and Palmer (1970) describe how bio or circadian rhythms may affect a person's ability to perform at certain times of the day. Thus, it is important in the II process that an instructor deals with such conditions as humanistically as possible in creating a positive learning environment.
Understanding the Social/Cultural Influences
A third aspect of any learning environment concerns the various social and cultural complexities that instructors and learners face as they engage in any educational endeavor. Many social and cultural aspects will influence learner performance or participation in both visible and subtle ways. Unfortunately, for many instructors it is often difficult or it feels uncomfortable to deal with some of the social or cultural dilemmas that exist any time you bring a group of learners together.
For example, Collard and Stalker (1991) assert that the various social or cultural understandings related to gender differences often result in oppression and exploitation even in the classroom. The predominance of males as members of teaching, training, or design faculties often is a visible sign, but there frequently are situations where oppression may exist in less visible ways. By way of illustration, Kolodny (1991) describes how in a biomedical engineering program females dropped out at higher rates than men in later stages of their training because of approaches the faculty used in the classroom:
When presented with the detailed medical history of a specific patient, the women generally excelled in the problem solving needed to develop a biomedical solution. Though they didn't name it as such, these young women were using empathy as a learning strategy. What frustrated them was that instructors rarely introduced specific case histories; raw data abstracted from case studies made up the bulk of the material presented in the classroom. In that learning context, the men performed better than the women. And the women switched majors. (p. A44)
Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule (1986), Gilligan (1982), Hayes (1989), Moir and Jesseo (1992), Tannen (1990), and The Group for Collaborative Inquiry (1993) are some of the voices urging instructors to better understand women's ways of knowing, study, and discourse.
Colin and Preciphs (1991) talk about stereotypic perceptual patterns regarding people and even racism that exist in some learning situations. They suggest that many educators do not overtly confront existing inaccurate perceptions or racism but instead focus on safer or more non-threatening issues. Tisdell (1993) describes how power relationships based on race, class, age, and gender can affect adult learning. This means instructors in the II process, as well as those using any other process, must constantly dig deep inside themselves to confront racism, gender bias, or another social or cultural issue that may inhibit the learning environment.
Creating an Informal Learning Environment
In many traditional teaching and learning situations, a teacher or trainer typically works at the front of the room presenting information, tightly directing the learning experiences, and creating a fairly formal situation in which the instructor is perceived as the expert and learners are expected to receive information or knowledge from that expert. Obviously, this is not the situation with all teachers operating from something other than the humanist paradigm. However, when it is the case learners in such settings often become dependent on what the instructor says or does. In many instances this "dependent" learner may spend considerable energy worrying about future evaluations or tests or trying to "figure out" what an instructor wants or expects.
Thus, another important function within the II process is the establishment of an informal learning environment. This means that the facilitator comes to be seen as something other than the sole or primary expert and instead becomes more of a colleague who helps learners think about multiple ways for obtaining knowledge. Involved, too, is promoting in learners a reliance on self and an assumption of personal responsibility for learning. This usually facilitates learners taking early ownership for personal involvement in any subsequent learning activities.
Developing the Instructional Plan
In more traditional teaching and learning approaches instructors plan most of the content, activities, and experiences. However, step three in the II process involves spending some initial time describing to learners several expected focal points for subsequent learning but not specifying all the topics, activities, or experiences that may be encountered in the course. Thus, rather than prejudging what is best for a particular group of learners, time is allotted for determining exactly what should be studied.
Assessing Individual and Group Needs
Developing a learning plan together is important in promoting feelings of personal ownership by learners. For example, the first few hours of an II learning experience include some efforts to determine both individual and group needs. This involves such activities as completing a needs diagnosis form, discussing such needs and ways to prioritize them with fellow students, and facilitating ways individual needs can be compared with group needs to indicate areas for concentrated study by each person outside of what is covered during group sessions.
After assessing the needs of this group of learners, the instructor's role at this point is to design a logical flow of events for meeting group needs. This normally involves developing a session-by-session schedule that now resembles more traditional instructional schedules or plans. It includes information on learning topics, events, activities, assignments, and resources. An instructor often can utilize many of the resources and learning activities developed or compiled during the pre-planning efforts of Step One. However, the needs diagnosis process will have identified some needs that are unique to that particular group, so new or redesigned learning experiences and resources are often required.
Such a design or learning plan is shared with learners at the next possible opportunity for their review and feedback. After such feedback any necessary modifications are made, although, if possible, some flexible time should be included to meet some of the needs that will emerge or evolve during the remainder of the learning process. The next procedure is to provide the final plan to learners as the framework they are to use to understand what is happening in subsequent group sessions and as a basis for the design of their individual learning contracts. In essence, a percentage of time has been devoted at the beginning of the group sessions to tailor a learning plan aimed at meeting unique needs of a specific group of learners.
Developing A Learning Contract
A learning contract is a tool utilized by learners to plan for and specify many of the activities, experiences, and resources of relevance to their involvement in a course or training event. Knowles (1986) provides a variety of examples and approaches to using learning contracts.
In the II process the contract enables learners to match their individual needs with those group activities and experiences described in the learning plan. Some learners' needs will match fairly closely the overall group needs so they will spend individual time studying some of the group topics in considerable detail. Others will have identified needs not scheduled for inclusion in group sessions as important for intensive personal study.
Detailing goals, learning resources, timelines, evaluation criteria, and learning verification strategies serve to facilitate good planning and build personal ownership for subsequent study efforts. Frequently, the instructor can provide various kinds of support in terms of suggesting possible learning activities, materials, and resources (the next section provides some information on learning activity possibilities). Feedback from the instructor or trainer in terms of any needed clarification or change or to provide additional information usually is an added feature.
Learning Activity Identification
The fourth step in the II process is the identification of various learning efforts or activities that build knowledge and develop those competencies appropriate to the needs the learners have identified. Some of this work will have started at the preplanning stage (Step One), but some of it will involve new efforts in response to the various needs identified for that particular group of learners.
This typically involves describing in a workbook (or in subsequent information presented to learners) information about such learning activities, how learners can access necessary learning resources, and how they can think about recording or organizing some of the new knowledge they acquire. The next major section describes some learning activity possibilities.
There are two remaining steps in the II process. The fifth step, carrying out and monitoring the progress of initial planning efforts, begins to parallel the more traditional instructional processes. It involves implementing a variety of learning activities, resources, and experiences in keeping with the learning plan mutually negotiated between the instructor and learners. This might entail lecturing about certain topics; however, to maintain interest, other techniques that can be used include group discussion, case study analysis, role playing, debates, teaching teams, outside experts, computerized programs, and even electronic discussions.
The sixth step, evaluation and feedback, involves helping learners to assess the value of their own learning efforts as well as critiquing the instructor and the instructional process. This typically is tied to learning contract plans and frequently requires considerable and ongoing feedback from the instructor. Such evaluative information also can provide benchmark data for subsequent times that the course or training session is conducted.
LEARNING ACTIVITY IDEAS
There are many possible learning activities, strategies, and approaches. The II process involves helping learners become aware of such possibilities and planning for their use as part of the learning contract development effort. This final section's purpose is to describe a few of these as examples.
Information Collection and Critical Reflection Approaches
There are a number of ways that learners can gather information and think critically about it in terms of meeting learning needs, acquiring new information, or promoting awareness of what is possible. One is called an interactive reading log. This involves a procedure whereby learners record and reflect on information they acquire pertaining to one or more of their individual needs. Such information can come from books, periodicals, audio-visual materials, and electronic communications.
The idea is to interact with the material by simulating a dialogue with the author(s), recording areas of agreement and disagreement, or reading in a manner that Knowles (1975) calls a proactive approach so as to determine some of the motivations or questions the original author might have set. Elbow (1973; 1981) describes another technique he calls "cooking," in which the reader attempts to determine an interaction of contrasting and conflicting materials in a document and ascertain the heart of any content.
Following is a summary of some tips or strategies pertaining to interactive reading activities:
1. An interactive reading log involves a series of reactions to those aspects of any literature piece the reader finds particularly meaningful or provocative.
2. Items selected for inclusion or reactive responses can include a variety of written information or material disseminated in other forms and can contain part or all of such items.
3. Readers can skip some sections which don't appear interesting or relevant, skim others, and read others more carefully for intensive interactions.
4. No particular guidelines are mandated for any learner in terms of the type, quantity, or nature of the reading or even subsequent recording and interacting. Instead, in keeping with the humanistic paradigm and as a means for helping learners assume considerable personal responsibility, each learner can be encouraged to find a personal interactive reading and recording style.
5. Readers can be encouraged to raise various questions about the nature of written materials, such as does it appear to be supported by research or experience, can it be verified, and does it appear to have practical utility.
There are other approaches that can be used, too. Christensen (1981), Gross (1977), and Progoff (1975) describe some excellent uses of a journal or diary for recording personal feelings and reflections about topics being studied. Jones (1994) describes how portfolios can be used to collect, record, and display information. Brookfield (1989) describes a variety of ways that critical reflection can be enhanced through helping adults explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. Creating theory logs and media logs are other examples.
Small Group Activities
Inherent to success in the II process is a belief in synergism, where energy, excitement, and new learnings are not only possible but often multiplied when two or more people study and discuss information or knowledge together. For example, several learners joining together in a study group on some topic related to the course typically review and critique some written material on a topic of mutual interest in order to obtain various opinions on meaning and implications for practice or research. Such opinions or discoveries usually are shared, critiqued, and recorded in some fashion.
For instance, a typical small group experience involves a few people discussing material they have read. There might be stimulator or discussion questions prepared by the instructor. They might engage in some type of debate in which certain group members deliberately take one side of an issue and other group members another side. On other occasions, learners themselves will generate questions.
After discussion over some period of time, perhaps from only a few minutes to several hours and ranging over multiple times talking together, it is not unusual to ask or expect that group members will develop some written materials as a response or summary. The facilitator or instructor usually provides some sort of feedback in the form of written or oral comments as a mechanism to help students obtain outside opinions on how well they did in understanding the information.
There usually are a number of learning resources or relevant educational experiences existing within any community (Hiemstra, 1992). One way to obtain exposure to such resources or experiences is to have learners visit agencies, organizations, or programs related to the content area under study. Various schema are available for understanding the nature of such agencies (Hiemstra, 1992; Schroeder, 1980). This is a practical way for learners to obtain information or knowledge through observations, interviews, and various evaluative techniques.
Another useful technique for obtaining new knowledge or experience is to facilitate for learners a mini-internship of some sort within an agency. This might involve shadowing a leader within the organization for several hours. It might include participating in several meetings held within the agency. It might even involve assuming certain ad hoc responsibilities, such as helping to plan or implement some event.
Specialized Study Effort
Another technique is for a student to carry out some type of special study away from the classroom or training session. This might involve studying some aspect of the community or an organization that is related to the subject matter under review. It could include an analysis of how some actions are carried out by various decision-makers. It might involve the development of a special product or resource that could be used by an organization to enhance some aspect of their outreach effort.
These are only a few of the possible learning activities. Most skilled instructors or trainers will develop a variety of such activities as they gain experience with the II process.
The II process is a proven way of organizing and carrying out instruction with adult learners. However, it is predicated on the humanist paradigm and a belief that such learners are both capable and desirous of assuming increasing responsibility for their own learning, growth, and development. It is hoped that this chapter and Brockett and Sisco's two associated chapters will stimulate readers to consider the paradigm's potential in effective design and delivery of instruction.
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June 1, 1998
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