Howard Yale McClusky Vita

The Adult Education History Project

Based on Information in the Syracuse University Library Archives

Translated for the WWW by Roger Hiemstra








Howard Y. McClusky.

[Howard Yale McClusky; HYMc; H.Y. McClusky; HYM]



Data gathered and compiled by Roger Hiemstra, McClusky's biographer.



Letters at National Archives, Washington, DC.

Papers and other materials possessed by Roger Hiemstra.

Papers at Syracuse University, Arents Library.

Papers at University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.


[source:  Roger Hiemstra]


Born in Whitesboro, NY, son of Frederick William and Lillian (Dean) McClusky.  Married Helen Hazel Hartman, 1930-08-26.  Children--Edith Lillian, William (dec.), Samuel (dec.), Frederick Yale, and John Evans.  Died at Chimney Corners, his summer home on Crystal Lake in Northern Michigan.  On the faculty in Education at the University of Michigan.  Active in Michigan Council of Churches and the Presbyterian church for many years.  Delbert-Clark National Award in Adult Education, 1956.  Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award, University of Michigan, 1958.  Michigan Legislature Concurrent Resolution of Tribute, 1969.  AEA Pioneer Award, 1975. University of Michigan Board of Regents Citation, 1975.


[source:  Roger Hiemstra]








WHO'S WHO, Vol. 37, 1980-81, 2084.




Letter, 1982-08-25, from Larry Berlin, Chairman, Adult Education, University of Michigan.



1913-18--General Studies, Blackburn Academy, Carlinville, IL (pre-college and beginning undergraduate). 

1921--A.B., English, Park College, Parkville, MO.

1929--Ph.D., Educational Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

1933-34--University of London, sabbatical study.

1945--Post-doctoral Fellow, National Council of Religion in Higher Education.


[source:  WHO'S WHO, Vol. 37, 1980-81, 2084]


1921-22--Teacher of English, Park Academy, Parkville, MO. 

1923-24--Research Associate (Commonwealth Fund Fellow) with the Commonwealth Fund investigation of visual education under the supervision of Professor Freeman, University of Chicago and Northwestern Universiity. 

1924-25--Instructor, Education Psychology, University of Michigan. 

1927-34--Assistant Professor, Educational Psychology, University of Michigan. 

1934-39--Associate Professor, Educational Psychology, University of Michigan. 1938-45--Assistant to Vice President in Charge of University Relations in the field of Adult Education, University of Michigan. 

1939-69--Professor, Educational Psychology, University of Michigan.

1940-42-- Associate Director, American Youth Commission, American Council on

Education, Washington DC  (on leave from U. of Michigan). 

1943--Consultant to Office of Civilian Defense and Office of War Information. 

1945-48--Director, Bureau of Studies and Training in Community Adult Education,University of Michigan.

1948-64--Establisher and Chair, Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Michigan.

1970-82--Professor Emeritus, University of Michigan.

1971--Co-Chair, Section on Education, White House Conference on Aging.

1973-74--Visiting Professor, Adult Education, University of Nebraska.


[sources:  EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF HOWARD MCCLUSKY, prepared by Michael Day for the University of Michigan Archives; annual reports prepared by McClusky]


Adult psychology.

Community education.

Contributive needs.

Coping needs.

Educational gerontology.

Educational psychology.

Expressive needs.

Influence needs.

Load-power-margin concept.

Margin theory of needs.

Mental hygiene (forerunner of special education).

Theory of margin.

Transcendence needs.


[sources:  Roger Hiemstra, Keith Main (see References_to); and various pieces written by McClusky (see attached bibliography)]


Judd, Dr. C.; Howard studied under Dr. Judd, successor to John Dewey and head of the Education Department at the University of Chicago.


[source:  Roger Hiemstra]


Adult Education Association of the USA (first president, 1951-52) [AEA-USA].

American Educational Research Association [AERA].

American Psychological Association [APA].

Commission of Professors of Adult Education (founding member, 1953) [CPAE).

Gerontology Society.

Michigan Academy of Science.

Michigan Adult Education Association.

National Association for Mental Health.

National Association of Public School Adult Education [NAPSAE].

National Community Education Association [NCEA].

 National Education Association [NEA].

National Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.

National Society for the Study of Education.

Progressive Education Association.


[sources:  WHO'S WHO, Vol. 37, 1980-81, 2084; publicity release from American Youth Commission, 1945; McClusky's annual School of Education reports]


Coordinated a Kellogg Foundation project designed to establish community development programs in rural Michigan towns, 1935_38.

Founding of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. [AEA-USA], 1950_51.

White House Conference on Aging, 1971.


[source:  Roger Hiemstra]


University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


[source:  Roger Hiemstra]


Bibliography of his approximately 175 articles, monographs and book chapters attached (in image form).


Griffith, William S. and McClusky, Howard Y. (series co-editors). The AEA Handbook Series in Adult Education.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass,1980-82.


 McClusky, Howard Y.  THE TEACHER AND THE SMALL COMMUNITY.  Lincoln:  The University of Nebraska Press, 1948.


Schorling, Raleigh and McClusky, Howard Y.  EDUCATION AND SOCIAL TRENDS.  Chicago:  World Book Company, 1936.



Hiemstra, Roger.  Howard Yale McClusky:  Adult education pioneer and statesman.  LIFELONG LEARNING:  THE ADULT YEARS 4, no. 2 (1980):  4-7, 25.


Hiemstra, Roger.  The contributions of Howard Yale McClusky to an evolving discipline of educational gerontology.  EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY 6 (1981):  209-226.

Jacques, Joseph W.   RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTONS OF PROFESSORS OF ADULT EDUCATION:  EARLY 20TH CENTURY LEADERS AND PIONEERS IN THE FIELD (Taped oral interview between Howard McClusky and Joseph Jacques).  Syracuse, NY:  Syracuse University, George Arents Research Library, 1973.




Main, Keith.  The power-load-margin formula of Howard Y. McClusky as the basis for a model of teaching.  ADULT EDUCATION 30 (1979):  19-33.





In addition to following normal manuscript citation conventions, include these elements when citing records found "electronically" through The Adult Education History Project: Main entry, Title, Item number, and, if a specific image is being cited, Component number. Mention, too, that the record was found in "/history.html, an Electronic Source for Syracuse University Library's database for archives and manuscripts".




[Postscript: Howard was inducted posthumously into the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame in 2002.]