Community Investments in Education
Discussion in the preceding chapters has concentrated on describing the community, its educative potential, and how the school and family can benefit from a realization of this potential. Education has primarily been referred to in general terms, as a process involving people of all ages. Education actually has been viewed by many critics in recent times as a parasitic organism which consumes large quantities of capital resources without visible benefit or economic return. However, considerable evidence has accumulated over the past two to three decades which indicates that education and economic growth have a symbiotic relationship. Denison (1974) reported that as much as 14 percent of the actual growth rate between 1930 and 1970 could be attributed to education. In today's terms such a percentage can be translated into billions of dollars.
As impressive as the measurable economic benefits of education may sound, there are many other benefits to society that may be difficult to measure but are perhaps more significant. Such benefits as job opportunities and preparation, improved health status, an enhanced quality of life, and an increase in personal satisfaction are related in many ways to educational investments. Thus, this chapter's purpose is to describe education in more specific terms so that community leaders and decision-makers will have a basis for planning where the scarce educational dollars can be utilized to maximize all potential benefits.
Examining Investment in Education
During the past two decades or longer a great deal has been said about the need for continuous community growth and expansion. For example, donor dollars from many industrialized countries have been contributed to developing countries in efforts to promote growth. Such dollars have been utilized for a variety of activities, ranging from social, educational, or economic growth to technical, political, and even military efforts.
United States communities, too, have been made aware of the need for growth by governmental officials, politicians, experts of all descriptions, and by officials of various industrial and commercial corporations. There even are some indications that out-migration from large cities to smaller communities and rural areas is taking place in parts of the country (Beale, 1975--Chapter One bibliography) and many rural areas and smaller communities need to find ways of promoting growth so that job opportunities and human services can be maintained. Consequently, one aspect of modern society upon which widespread agreement can usually be found is that most communities continuously desire to implement various measures that promote growth.
One important contributor to growth and development is a community's own human resources. Skill training must be available if various adults are to keep up with societal or technological changes that affect their jobs. For example, business and industry management and leadership training programs must be developed if community and business leaders are to maintain and improve their abilities to solve various problems. Institutions of higher learning, vocational-technical training schools, and proprietary schools need to base some of their planned human resources output on known community needs. Furthermore, those with human resources needs must become adept at communicating such needs to organizations that may be able to assist in providing training. Thus, if the goals of communities and society are to be realized, human resource development is a necessary condition for achieving them.
The level of human resource development also can be used as an indicator of a community's readiness for growth; however, the identification of various educational investments directed toward developing human resources will not explain all the elements required to promote growth and development. (Appendix C at the conclusion of Chapter Six provides a listing of various social, educational, and economic indicators available in most communities.) Some of the more difficult variables to control, measure, or understand have been discussed in earlier chapters, such as identifying the community power structure, activating the educative community, identifying an educational or community agency facility to serve as a community center, helping families better use education, and promoting a close coordination between all portions of community life. Therefore, the ability to appraise educational investments becomes one more tool to assist educators and other change specialists in planning and promoting a more satisfying life for citizens.
The value of education to an individual usually centers on personal ability to earn a living and opportunity or preparation to obtain still further education. The high school graduate will have more opportunities for a better job than the high school dropout, and the high school diploma is now a standard prerequisite for acceptance into higher forms of education. Once on the job, the more highly educated employees are typically the first chosen for advanced training and the first to be promoted to better jobs at higher salaries. Research also has determined that more highly educated people will earn in a lifetime at least two or three times as much as those less educated.
The advantages of a sound education on the job can extend beyond higher incomes and promotion opportunities. Greater receptivity to new ideas and job-related changes usually is found in higher educated employees. This is critical to the adaptation required to keep current with rapid change and necessary for productivity of fellow workers. Whenever production involves cooperation among employees, the flexibility and adaptability of one worker will usually be an advantage to others. Most employers also will make a considerable investment in employee education and training through internal training units. In fact, training in business and industry may well be the largest educational investment made today.
The benefits of education can also extend to an individual's family and community. The informal education received in the home and attitudes obtained toward learning, for example, are related to educational levels and interests of parents. In fact, as noted in earlier chapters, preparation for a lifetime of learning starts in the home. At the community level, residents can be affected favorable by any values developed in children through education and the home. The larger society is benefitted by the development of an informed and responsible citizenry. These benefits can, in turn, be realized by the general taxpayer where education has reduced a need to support the results of a lack of education, such as unemployment, crime, delinquency, and poverty.
Thus, investments in education, if of the right kinds and in the right amounts, can have economic benefits and yield even a social return on the dollar. The challenge becomes one of improving the educational system currently in existence. To this end, educational and community decision-makers must continue to improve their knowledge and understanding of the role human resource development plays in the dynamics of community growth and change.
Whether all citizens can be helped to have a more satisfying life merely by making correct investments in education is a point for speculation. Perhaps it is idealistic to think that many community or societal problems can be totally corrected by better trained and more skilled human resources. However, the need for educators, community leaders, and other citizens to understand how education is and can be related to the quality of total community life hopefully has been made clear in earlier chapters.
For example, at the local community level many decisions are regularly made that affect education and the level of human resource development. Yet, such decisions often are based on tradition or assumed needs. In addition, decisions made at the state or national level often affect or supersede local decisions, causing confusion and overlap of programs. The existence of a variety of programs outside the formal educational system that are designed to prepare human resources is further indication that decisions affecting communities often are not coordinated. Community action programs, special training programs, and private training programs are just some of the many examples of this "shot-gun" approach to education and training. The central coordinating agency described in Chapter Five might provide the leadership necessary to correct this overlapping of educational investment, but knowledge of proper levels of investment also are needed.
The result of overlap, duplication, and confusion often has been either an over-investment or an under-investment in education. A recent aspect of an incorrect investment is the apparent surplus of certain kinds of teachers and the shortage of other kinds. Some teachers, for example, have not been able to secure a teaching position or they have had to accept an opening some distance from where they wanted to settle or in some setting for which they may be inadequately prepared. Other teachers have had to attend special training programs to become prepared to teach in such areas as math and science. Similar examples exist in other professions.
Under-investment actually is being forced on many educational institutions throughout the United States and also in other countries. The recent U.S. economic problems, with resulting high unemployment and increases in local taxes to meet community needs, have resulted in both a taxpayer's revolt in several states and declining support for education at the federal level. School bond failures, faculty strikes, eliminated positions and programs, and a general feeling of educational malaise have resulted. In extreme cases, some colleges have closed their doors in the past decade and K-12 schools have been forced to close down neighborhood schools, eliminate extracurricular activities, consolidate, or take other extreme measures to reduce their budgets.
What is now needed is a systematic approach to educational investment that can be utilized along with efforts to activate the entire community. Therefore, a framework for educational investments that will promote and facilitate decision-making is described in the next section. This framework elucidates four categories of education in which investments can be made. The information should help community leaders and interested citizens concerned with education to gain some increased understanding of the requirements necessary to develop adequate human resources.
A Proper Combination of Educational Investments
There are many complexities in determining the nature and amount of educational investments required for promoting community growth and for improving the lives of all residents. First, there is a notion shared by some community leaders that growth will result simply from a continual increase in educational investments: "What we need is an enlarged public library system!" "We need a new high school building!" "A new community college swimming pool will be good for the town!" Actually there is no predictable or clear-cut relationship between the amount of investments in education and any resulting growth. The current climate of economic instability with a soaring national debt adds to the difficulties in understanding such relationships. In reality, educational investments of the wrong kind may impede various types of community or economic growth.
Second, the idea exists that investments in education should be made only after investments in economic development have been completed. "The new community auditorium should have priority over a new library building!" "Encouraging new industry to move to a community should be done before a community school program is developed!" However, the provision of trained people for any new jobs that are created may require a tremendous investment in education, and any success of new economic ventures may depend on a community's educational potential. Therefore, it becomes just as logical to begin with a strategy for developing human resources and then work to maximize community growth based on the educational system's effectiveness.
Consequently, what must be involved in community planning is a close relationship between the educational system and the economy. In other words, it is assumed that a community's economic development is inextricably linked to its educational development. Furthermore, as Jensen and Medlin (1969) note, there are right and wrong kinds of educational investments and incorrect ones can promote community stagnation and decline, just as correct investments will promote economic development.
The process of planning for educational investments must include determining the potential value, in economic terms, of different amounts and types of education. Assuming that the major goal of educational investments is human resource development, and using the United States as a basic reference point, there are four general areas of investments: (a) Formal education, (b) Occupational education, (c) Continuing and adult education, and (d) community development. The proper combination of investments in each is essential to a community's growth and development.
Formal education begins with the primary school and concludes with the higher forms of education and training. This includes those institutions or agencies specializing in the production of training, as distinct from those organizations offering training or education in conjunction with learning a skill necessary for the production of goods or the performance of an occupational service. Some institutions, such as those training technicians, specialize in mainly one skill area, while others, such as universities, offer a large and diverse selection of skill areas.
Investments in formal education are made in public/private K-12 schools, community/junior colleges, two and four-year colleges, universities, and proprietary/professional schools, where education is part of a continuous and long-range program to supply knowledge as a basis for participation in society outside the school setting. Vocational education that encompasses instruction at the secondary school level and is designed to provide exploration opportunities in various careers, pre-employment training in nonprofessional and low-skill jobs, cooperative work-study opportunities, and skills in the practical arts is considered part of formal education. For the most part, participants in these various forms of education are removed from productive economic roles during the time of study, although as Apps (1981) notes, the involvement in both full and part-time formal learning by adults is on the increase.
Investment in occupational education is a large component of many communities' total educational investments. In some communities, expenditures for occupationally-related training in business and industry will be considerably larger than formal education investments. This category is different from formal education in that participants in such efforts receive specialized occupational training related to the performance of their present or future work roles. Educational opportunities through simulated work settings in laboratories and shops (such as machine shops, electronic laboratories, and dental laboratories) including internships, apprentice experiences, and workshop or work-study activities, are provided for individuals. Such experiences can be credit in nature but are likely to be non-credit. Actual on-the-job instruction, special instruction in training classrooms, or individualized study opportunities frequently are provided in such settings as industries, offices, stores, and hospitals. CETA programs in the seventies and now efforts under the Job Partnership Training Act (JPTA) also fit within this category.
Growth occurs as individuals increase their productivity potential by acquiring new skills or perfecting old ones during educational experiences. The range of complexity in acquiring skills in quite extensive. For example, an apprentice can learn a new skill while combining on-the-job training and trade-related instruction. The continuing education administrator up-grades personal skills and abilities through attending a conference or workshop. The medical intern or resident in a hospital setting further develops those skills acquired in medical school. All three types of workers are more productive as a result of this form of educational investment. Therefore, occupational education is a process of raising future productivity and differs from the formal education investment in that learning takes place in a job setting rather than in a formal classroom setting at the K-12 or college level.
Continuing and Adult Education
The third type of educational enterprise is continuing and adult education. This includes those processes whereby adults in a community acquire the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, and skills necessary for adequate participation in a constantly changing society. Continuing and adult education, therefore, encompasses a wide variety of programs and activities. Participants in these programs typically also hold jobs and/or occupy productive family roles within a community setting. Their participation is coordinated with daily activities in such a way that occupational and family commitments are continued.
The easily recognizable continuing education programs in most communities include adult high school, public school adult education, the university extension activities of colleges and universities, various community agencies' continuing education programs, any non-occupationally related educational programs in business, industry, and the medical fields, and private adult education courses and programs. In addition, various kinds of retraining programs can be found in most communities. Some are designed for the unemployed who must learn new skills; some are for the highly skilled who must keep in touch with new developments in their fields; some are for those adults who simply wish to increase their skill and knowledge or who wish to change career specialties. Other common programs include adult education related to recreation, special interests, literacy, and English as a second language.
Investments in continuing and adult education are important beyond intellectual stimulation or job upgrading. The continuing education enterprise must also play a corrective role for investment deficiencies in other types of education. This is especially important for the basic education, training, and job counseling of under-employed adults. Consequently, most communities should invest in adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs. It should be noted, too, that it is frequently difficult to clearly distinguish between some occupational and some adult education programs. The main difference centers on whether the educational experience will facilitate a person's improved job performance versus an improved ability to cope with the changes normally associated with growth and development as a person.
The fourth kind of investment is termed community development. Spontaneous changes, primarily induced by technological advances, continuously will occur in the typical U.S. community. In response to these changes, internal adjustments must be made if a community and its citizens are to maintain conditions which will be supportive of growth and development. Therefore, community development investments are used to promote in people the creation or enhancement of behavioral and organizational skills necessary for coping with change and for contributing to community growth.
The realm of community development includes many of the skills and techniques described in the preceding chapter. Developing community problem-solving skills, training community leaders, studying the community, and promoting community action could all be classified as community development functions. The increasing interest in voluntary service, federal-level urging of volunteer involvement to meet local need, and increasing strength of organizations like Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America all are community development efforts. Additional components would include mass media programs, informational literature, Cooperative Extensions' community development efforts, various agency outreach programs, and neighborhood groups devoted to examining community problems so the skills and procedures for removing any roadblocks to community growth can be developed.
Suggested Levels of Community Investments in Education
Recognition of the important contribution education can make to economic and community growth has encouraged scholars to develop a rational basis for investing in education. The following suggestions present one viewpoint to consider in seeking a logical basis from which to make decisions and judgements pertaining to spending educational dollars (see Hiemstra, 1970, in the Chapter Six bibliography--additional information on educational investment models and various viewpoints on investing in education are presented in several sources cited in this chapter's bibliography).
It is anticipated that the suggested investment levels will enable community residents and decision-makers to better understand the need to consider where and in what proportion investments in education should be made. The suggestions are based on the four areas of educational investment described in the preceding sections. If you have experience working at the community level you will discern some difficulties inherent in determining total investments in each category. Data collection techniques specific to each community will need to be developed and refined (see Chapter Six's Appendix C for some suggested educational and economic indices).
An urban, U.S. community of 50,000 people or more serves as a basis for the suggested investments. Smaller or rural communities and communities in other countries may need to consider alternative models or different proportions. In reality, the suggested framework is still at a theoretical level of development. Only a few communities have been studied with these investment levels as a research basis. Additional study and utilization will be required to refine the framework, better understand the four educational investment enterprises, and delineate other educational categories specific to a particular community. Until this refinement process is complete, the material can be used only as a general guide to any decisions made at a community level.
The aim of educational investment in a community seeking to promote growth should be that of developing and maintaining an adequate human resource supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Thus, research to date for this framework suggests that up to 15 percent of a community's available money and resources be invested in education. For example, a community with an annual gross national product equivalent to $50,000,000 would invest approximately $7.5 million in education. That amount is used in the Table 7-1 presentation of community investments. Determining the money available in a community will require some knowledge and understanding of its economy and of economic analysis. Some suggested economic measures that can be determined or found for most communities are a Gross National Product, Effective Buying Income (see the Sales Management magazine), or residents' per capita income.
It is suggested, for example, that 40-50 percent of the total community investment be made in formal education. This investment will range from providing the basic literacy training of the young to preparing young adults through high school or college for their roles in a community. It will also provide the initial occupational preparation of a large percentage of the population.
Another 25-30 percent of the community's educational dollars should be invested in continuing and adult education. These monies are necessary to meet various lifelong learning needs, such special interest needs on the job as retirement planning, or for retraining programs designed to correct imbalances that occur in the supply of human resources. A portion of this investment will also be used for basic, vocational, and family-life training of under-educated and under-employed community members in an attempt to improve the quality of their personal and family living.
Table 7-1. Recommended Annual Investment Percentages in the Four Investment Areas ($7,500,000 is used as a basis for the calculations).
INVESTMENT AREA //RECOMMENDED PERCENTAGE//DOLLAR AMOUNT
Formal Education//40-50 %/$3,000,000-3,750,000
Continuing and Adult Education//25-30 %//$1,875,000-2,250,000
Occupational Education//25-30 %//$1,875,000-2,250,000
Community Development//05-10 %//$ 375,000- 750,000
Occupational education also has a great deal of potential in promoting and continuing community growth. It is suggested that approximately 25 to 30 percent of all the monies earmarked for education be
allocated to this educational area. The purpose is to make available a constantly upgraded work force capable of undertaking or adapting to occupations as they become available or change.
An investment in community development should be approximately 5-10 percent of the total community budget for education. These monies would be used to analyze community problems and to help community members become aware of how these problem affect a community's growth potential. This money also would be used to provide various residents with leadership and problem solving skills.
As a final note, it should be stressed that the 15 percent of available resources may need to be increased in communities where there are special problems or where education investments have been insufficient for years. In some instances a community could invest in education at 25 percent or more for several years before real economic impact is observed. In addition, because there is often a lag of two or more years (Hiemstra, 1970--Chapter Five bibliography), decision makers may need to be patient.
Implications for Community Investment in Education
The material presented in this chapter has only been an introduction to the rationale, need, and potential categories relative to making various investments in education. Measuring the current level of investments being made by communities has not been discussed. The information presented in previous chapters about studying communities can be used to develop investment patterns and attitudes. In addition, the planning process that must take place, politically, community-wide, and in various agencies, prior to making any community investments was not presented. Several sources in the chapter's bibliography provide some guidance on doing such planning.
The commitment to invest in education does not depend only on the desire a community might have for education or on some framework suggested for making investments in various educational enterprises. Numerous factors, such as density and make up of the population, a community's values, customs, and traditions, the standard of community living, and occupational backgrounds of residents affect the decisions that must be made. In addition, as noted earlier any investments made in education will not have an immediate impact on the community. Rather, change or response to any different emphasis will be gradual over a long period of time.
Whether all or even some of the many problems facing certain communities can be corrected by proper educational investments is unknown. Numerous political and special interest factors exist in each community that will have a bearing on dollar investments in any enterprise. However, there certainly is a need for community leaders, educators, and interested citizens to understand more about educational investments. A greater utilization of the community for educational purposes will depend on careful coordination, planning, and on-going evaluation of the amount and kind of investments made in education.
Economic Growth/Development -- This term is defined as the increase in real value of a given economy's gross national product. At the community level, this includes an increase in the economic and social well being of individuals, usually facilitated by some systematic planning process.
Educational Investments -- There are four general types of educational enterprise in which investments can be made by a community to promote its economic growth: Formal education, continuing and adult education, occupational education, and community development.
Community Development -- This type of education is directed toward enabling community residents to contribute to the development of their respective communities through various citizen roles. Included are various informational literature and programs, and study efforts devoted to understanding community problems restricting socio-economic development.
Continuing and Adult Education -- This includes a variety of educational programs aimed at helping people acquire knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for subsequent participation in community activities. The recognized activities include adult high school, public school, adult education, college and university extension programs, and the continuing education efforts of various community agencies. Participants in such programs typically hold jobs or occupy productive family roles in a community setting; going to school is coordinated with their daily activities in such a way that occupational progress is not disrupted.
Formal Education -- These investments take the form of elementary and secondary schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools. For the most part, participants are removed from productive economic roles during the period they are attending such schools. Included is vocational education instruction at the secondary school level that is used to provide exploration opportunities in various occupations, pre-employment training for these occupations, cooperative work study opportunities in these occupations, and practical arts skill building.
Occupational Education -- Participants in these programs receive specialized occupational training related to the performance of their present or future work roles. Simulated work experiences, on-the-job training, apprenticeship experiences, and business and industry training activities are some of the educational endeavors. The purpose of such education is to increase productivity of the people being trained and, in turn, productivity of the related economic enterprises.
1. Describe some of the economic benefits that education has brought to your life? Other types of benefits? How has this impacted on you in terms of your role as a community member?
2. How much does your community value education? What are some of the indicators of this value? Is such value on the rise or decline?
3. How systematic do you believe your community is in making educational investments?
4. Determine or estimate the dollar amounts being invested in any one (or more) of the four suggested framework categories? Do the amounts fall within suggested guidelines? What have been the outcomes of such investments?
5. How would you advise community leaders in terms of changing some educational investments?
6. What do you believe your community will do in the future regarding investments in various categories of education? What will be the likely outcomes of such investments?
Benson, C. S. (1963). Perspectives on the economics of education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 477 pages. This is a book of readings that covers a wide range of topics related to investing in education. The material is directed toward the school administrator, but interested parents and community leaders will also find it informative. The general topics covered include the following: Returns to education, economic structure of education, taxation, grants-in-aid, and problems of productivity in education.
Benson, C. S. (1975). Education finance in the coming decade. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. 120 pages. Bibliography. The author provides some information on various economical aspects of financing education.
Benson, C. S. (1978). The economics of public education (3rd Edition). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 413 pages. Bibliography. Name index. Subject index. The author continues his efforts to document and understand the relationship of finances to education.
Benson, C. S., Hodgkinson, H. L., & Pers, J. S. (1974). Implementing the learning society: New strategies for financing social objectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 147 pages. Bibliography. The authors describe some of the economic aspects of higher education in the United States.
Bergevin, P. (1967). A philosophy for adult education. New York: The Seabury Press. 176 pages. Index. Selected reading list. The author addresses several problem areas in adult education. Such problems as resistance to change, under-educated citizens, and the difficulty of motivating adults to participate in adult and continuing education activities are discussed.
Davis, R. G. (1966). Planning human resource development. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company. 334 pages. Index. Bibliography. Appendices. This book introduces and discusses various models, schemata, and methods for human resource development.
Davis, R. G., & Lewis, G. M. (1975). Education and employment: A future perspective of needs. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. 166 pages. Index. Bibliography. Appendices. The book looks at relationships between education and employment. A discussion of school-based vocational education, adult education, and employment training is included.
Denison E. F. (1974). Accounting for United States economic growth: 1929-1969. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 355 pages. Index. Appendices. In this book the author analyzes economic growth through examination of changes in several categories or indices: Employment, working time, education, size of capital stock, state of knowledge, proportion of labor allocated to inefficient uses, size of markets, and the strength and pattern of short-term demand pressures. Advances in knowledge and education are shown to be the biggest single sources of growth.
Denison, E. F. (1979). Accounting for slower growth: The United States in the 1970's. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. 212 pages. Index. Appendices. The author pursued causes of a U.S. economic decline during the 70's. Decline in productivity, increased regulation, and less investment in research were some of the reasons. Education and knowledge production remain as important factors for enhancing economic growth.
Denison, E. F. (1985). Trends in American economic growth, 1929-1982. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. 141 pages. Bibliography. Index. The author describes some of the economic conditions and trends in the United States.
Fantini, M. D., & Young, M. A. (1970). Designing education for tomorrow's cities. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 160 pages. Index. Bibliography. Appendices. This book advocates a system of education that stresses the human aspect. The authors define education in systems terms and present the system as if it were to be applied to a newly developed community.
Harbison, F. H. (1973). Human resources: As the wealth of nations. New York: Oxford University Press. 173 pages. Index. Selected bibliography. This book, part of an economic development series, discusses national development based on the notion that human resources are very important and that maximum utilization of human beings must be accomplished. Chapters on education and training are included.
Harbison, F., & Myers, C. A. (1964). Education, manpower, and economic growth. New York: McGraw-Hill Book company. 229 pages. Index. The authors develop some concepts related to human resource development. Some of the topics dealt with are strategies for human resource development, planning for development, and integrating human resource and general development. An important contribution is one chapter which deals with the development of some quantitative indicators for measuring human resource development.
Jensen, G. E., & Medlin, W. K. (Eds.). (1969). Readings on the planning of education for community and national development (Volume one). Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Publishers. 82 pages. This little volume presents four chapters on a variety of topics related to educational, economic, and political development. The institutional roles of education, development outside the United States, and the concept of nation building also are covered.
JTPA and high-risk youth: A guide to successful employment & training programs. (1991). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 576). 66 pages. This manual presents activities, practices, problems, and solutions related to developing, conducting, and reviewing youth employment programs.
Kogan, D., & Others. (1991). Improving the quality of training under JTPA (Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-A). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 334 457). 289 pages. This is a report of a study of JTPA programs around the country.
Miller, R. I. (Ed.). (1991). Applying the Deming method to higher education for more effective human resource management. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 333 805). 138 pages. This document discusses the application of the Deming management method to higher education in order to improve the management practices and operations of American colleges and universities.
Roberts, R. W. (1971). Vocational and practical arts education. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. 500 pages. Index. Appendices. This book provides a comprehensive examination of developments in vocational education and practical arts. Emphasis is placed on the origins, development, principles, and relationships of these areas of education.
Shields, J. T., Jr. (1967). Education in community development. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers. 127 pages. Bibliography. Community development from an international perspective is the book's theme. The author addresses the U.S. Agency for International Development, technical assistance, and the role of training in community development.
Swanson, G. I. (Ed.). (1981). The future of vocational education. Arlington, VA: The American Vocational Association, Inc. 295 pages. Index. Various authors look at both the past and future in charting a current course for vocational education. New approaches, educational policy, and human resource development are among the topics discussed.
The apprenticeship book. (1991). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 594). 24 pages. This booklet presents an overview of apprenticeship activities in Ontario, Canada, including information on the type and benefits of apprenticeships.
Weisbrod, B. A. (1964). External benefits of public education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section, Department of Economics. 144 pages. Appendices. This book explores the extent to which education provides benefits to people. A conceptual analysis of the benefits in a decentralized educational system is included.
Weistart, J. C. (Ed.). (1972). Community economic development. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc. 308 pages. Seventeen chapters by various authors are presented on such topics as the politics of community development, minority economic development, and national policy.
Wilcox, J. (1991). Preparing students for the real world. Vocational Education Journal, 66(6), 38-40. The author describes six career paths or clusters of courses that provide essential skills for immediate employment or post-high school education.
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-- Go to Information about the author, -- Go to the Preface, Chapter One, Chapter Two, Chapter Three, Chapter Four, Chapter Five, Chapter Six, Chapter Eight, or the Index